Black is see-thru; black is absence of light; If you are showing grey scale objects or almost black objects, they will show up somewhat. Developers will need to try it out and see. Your question: " If black is transparent (real-world background, outside environment, is seen through) on display, black objects should not be seen on white outside background, true?" ; the answer is, yes, true, assuming there is no background in your model to provide contrast.
As far as night vision and military applications, the way to address is by varying the brightness; we have automatic brightness control with some override controls, but basically, dialing the brightness way down still allows the user to see in very dark environments; We can adjust color saturation as necessary at different ambient conditions, although this is not yet a standard feature.